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Melanoma is a kind of skin cancer due to uncontrolled growth of melanocytes or pigment cells affecting the skin and sometimes the eyes and intestines.

Causes are not clear but risk factors include:

  • Excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays
  • Heredity


  • Asymmetrical mole or growth on the skin
  • Patchy or multicolored skin growth
  • Change in color or size of a skin growth
  • Bleeding from a skin growth

Treatment varies according to the extent of the cancer and may include:

  • Surgical removal of the tumor in case of superficial cancers
  • Surgical removal of the tumor and affected lymph nodes when cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy


  • Avoid excessive exposure to hot sun
  • Avoid tanning beds and devices
  • Wear protective clothing and hats while moving out in hot sun