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Endometriosis is a condition in women of reproductive age causing endometrial cells (found inside the uterus) to grow outside the uterus, usually on the other pelvic organs.

Causes are not clear but some of the possibilities include:

  • Heredity
  • Retrograde menstruation
  • Metaplasia
  • Transfer of endometrial tissue through surgery, bloodstream or lymphatic system
  • Altered immune system

Symptoms may not be present always. They include:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Menstrual cramps and pain
  • Heavy or long menstrual periods
  • Short menstrual cycle
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Painful bowel movements
  • Painful urination
  • Infertility
  • Nausea or vomiting

Treatment depends on whether fertility is to be retained or not. It includes:

  • Medication such as NSAIDs, oral contraceptives to reduce pain and control the progression
  • Surgical treatment to remove scar tissues laparoscopically or hysterectomy and removal of ovaries


There is no way to prevent endometriosis.